Blood sugar levels chart

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Diabetes is a chronic condition where pancreatic cells do not produce enough insulin (diabetes type 1) or where the body cannot use the produced insulin effectively (diabetes type 2).

Due to lack of insulin, or body’s inability to properly utilise it, diabetes patients develop problems that can lead to severe complications and even death, if not acted upon.

For patients with type 1 diabetes insulin regulation / dosing is essential. For patients with type 2 diabetes a lot can be done with proper lifestyle changes, be it adjusted diet, exercise and weight control.

Insulin is a hormone, a chemical protein, secreted by beta cells in the pancreas that controls blood sugar levels in the body. Insulin was first used in treatment of diabetes in 1922.

Blood sugar levels chart

Blood sugar levels chart in mmol / l.

Target Levels
by Type
Upon waking Before meals
(pre prandial)
At least 90 minutes after meals
(post prandial)
Non-diabetic* 4.0 to 5.9 mmol/L under 7.8 mmol/L
Type 2 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L under 8.5 mmol/L
Type 1 diabetes 5 to 7 mmol/L 4 to 7 mmol/L 5 to 9 mmol/L
Children w/ type 1 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L 4 to 7 mmol/L 5 to 9 mmol/L

 

Blood sugar levels chart in mg / dl

Target Levels
by Type
Upon waking Before meals
(pre prandial)
At least 90 minutes after meals
(post prandial)
Non-diabetic* 72 mg / dl to 106 mg / dl under 140 mg / dl
Type 2 diabetes 72 mg / dl to 126 mg / dl under 153 mg / dl
Type 1 diabetes 90 mg / dl to 126 mg / dl 72 mg / dl to 126 mg / dl 90 to 162 mg / dl
Children w/ type 1 diabetes 72 mg / dl to 126 mg / dl 72 mg / dl to 126 mg / dl 90 to 162 mg / dl

 

Target Diabetes Blood Sugar Levels

Time to Check mg/dl mmol/l
Upon waking before breakfast (Fasting) 70-130 (Ideal under 110) 4-7.2 (Ideal under under 6.1)
Two hours after meals Under 180 (Ideal is under 140) Under 10 (Ideal is under 7.8)
Bedtime 90-150 5-8.3

Blood sugar levels chart by age

Blood sugar levels do not change with age, as for example target blood pressure values do. So in general a persons blood sugar levels should be the same, regardless of age.

Is it recommended to monitor your blood sugar levels daily?

Daily monitoring of blood sugar levels is recommended for patients with diabetes or prediabetes. Patients with type 1 should have their blood glucose monitored continuously and inject insult as needed. Patients with type 2 diabetes can have regular daily checks scheduled at best convenience, or around meal(s) time.

What to do to mitigate hypoglycaemia

Signs of hypoglycaemia

  • Shaking
  • Sweating
  • Fear
  • Excitement
  • Paleness
  • Increased heart rate

Mild hypoglycaemia:

Consume a meal rich in carbohydrates (sandwich, cereal…); If hypoglycaemia is more severe simple sugar (sugar cube, sweet juice …) should be consumed.

Severe hypoglycaemia:

Simple sugar (sugar cube, sweet juice …) should be consumed.
Glucagon injection; This can be done by the diabetics themselves (glucagon is intended for home use in case of severe hypoglycaemia)
An infusion of 50% glucose solution

Hyperglycaemia

A state of elevated blood sugar concentration.
Possible causes: insufficient insulin, too much food, cold, or some other illness.

Insulin and diabetes pills should be taken to lower blood glucose levels.

Foods to consume to regulate blood sugar levels

Highly recommended foods:

  • High-fiber foods:
  • Wholemeal, rye, black, buckwheat bread;
  • Buckwheat, spring mash, sheepskin;
  • Barley, oats, rye flakes;
  • Potatoes in peel, nonslreaded rice,
  • Wholemeal pasta;
  • Beans, peas, soya;
  • Fresh, frozen vegetables;
  • Raw, unpeeled fruit, especially berries;
  • skimmed milk
  • egg white
  • unsweetened beverages: tea, water, mineral water, pure vegetable soups

Food recommended in moderate quantities:

Can be consumed regularly: potatoes, rice, pasta, milk, yogurt, half-fat cheese, lean meat and fish;

Can be consumed rarely:
white bread, biscuits for diabetics, fresh fruit, fruit juice, fresh fruit, let the meat, egg yolk, offal;

Foods that must be avoided:

Foods high in fat: fried foods, butter, lard, margarine, fatty meats, mayonnaise, croissants, cream cheese, hot dogs, salami, sausages, fries, chips, industrially manufactured cream soups foods with high sugar: jam honey, fruit syrups, compotes, fruit canned products, puddings, soft-sweetened beverages (coca-cola, cocktail, boy …), liquors

Foods high in fat and sugar: cakes, ice cream, chocolate